Bupleurum falcatum
subsp. cernuum

Bupleurum falcatum
subsp. cernuum
Bupleurum L.
Bupleurum falcatum L. subsp. cernuum (TEN.) ARC.
Ömür: Çok yıllık
Yapı: ot
Hayat formu:
İlk çiçeklenme zamanı: 7
Son çiçeklenme zamanı: 8
Habitat: seyrek ormanlar, kayalık, yamaçlar, sarp dağlar
Minimum yükseklik: 1000
Maksimum yükseklik: 2440
Endemik: -
Element: ?
Türkiye dağılımı: K., G., ve D. Anadolu
Genel dağılımı: Avrasya
Bulunduğu kareler:A2 A3 A4 A5 A7 A8 A9 B6 B7 B9 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C9
B. falcatum L., Sp. PI. 237 (1753)f.
  Perennial (rarely biennial ?), 2-70 cm, stems simple, or sparsely branched to richly paniculate above. Basal leaves linear to oblanceolate and petiolate; cauline leaves sessile (in Turkey), linear to oblanceolate, 1-23 mm broad, 1-9-veined. Rays 2-14. Bracts 1-3, unequal. Bracteoles usually 5, obovate to lanceolate, 1-3-veined, acuminate to mucronate, shorter to longer than pedicels. Petals yellow, sometimes purplish in bud. Fruit elliptic-oblong to oblong, 3-5 mm, ridges filiform to narrowly winged; dorsal vittae 1-5 in each vallecula; commissural vittae 2-10.
A polymorphic complex, stretching from the Pyrenees to at least C. Asia and the Himalayas, and known to contain both diploids and polyploids in Europe. Although numerous taxa have been described (often at specific rank), the differences between them are slight and often inconstant, so that it does not seem a practical proposition to treat any of the Turkish representatives as separate species. Homologous variation, hybridization and environmental modification appear to have combined to produce a situation which is particularly difficult to classify. The Anatolian material can be grouped into three variable subspecies.
1. Cauline leaves oblong- to linear-oblanceolate, 5-23 mm broad, 5-9-veined, usually green; rays subequal, 5-14; bracteoles oblong-acuminate, 1-2 x as long as pedicels; fruits (4-5 mm) with wings up to 0.6 mm broad; stems always erect, sturdy, usually 30-70 cm, with long peduncles. (Pedicels usually longer than in the other subspecies) subsp. polyphyllum
1. Cauline leaves usually linear, narrower (1-5 mm broad), 5-veined, glaucous; rays very unequal, (2-)3-8; bracteoles obovate-oblong to lanceolate, shorter than pedicels to 2 x as long; fruits (3-5 mm) with ridges very narrowly winged (wings up to 0-25 mm broad) or wingless; stems erect or ascending, 2-60 cm, with long or short peduncles
       2. Caudex suffrutescent or rarely strongly suffruticose; cauline leaves rather numerous; stems leafy, 15-70 cm, usually erect, slender, paniculate above, bearing ascending or spreading, long or short peduncles; bracteoles attenuate, often lanceolate, 1/2-l1/2x as long as pedicels subsp. cernuum
       2. Caudex short, ± praemorse; leaves mostly basal, linear-oblanceolate; stems 2-30 cm, erect or ascending, sturdy, simple or bearing a few long ascending-erect peduncles; bracteoles obovate-oblong, cuspidate or shortly acuminate, 11/2-2 x as long as pedicels subsp. persicum
subsp. cernuum (Ten.) Arc, Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2:590 (1894). Syn: B. exaltatum Bieb., Tabl. Prov. Casp. 113 (1798) et Beschr. Land. Casp. 156 (1800) pro parte quoad Cauc.; B. linearifollium DC, Prodr. 4:131 (1830); B. exaltatum Bieb. var. linearifolium (DC.) Boiss. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, 1:150 (1844); B. exaltatum Bieb. var. microlepis Fenzl in Tchihat, Asie Min. Bot. 1:424 (1860), saltern pro parte Liban.; B. irregulare Boiss. & Kotschy in Boiss., Fl. Or. 2:850 (1872); B. linearifolium DC. var. bracteatum Post, Fl. Syria 342 (1896)! B. falcatum L. var. exaltatum (Bieb.) Briq., Bupl. Alp. Marit. 94 (1897); B. falcatum L. var. linearifolium (DC.) Wolff f. irregulare (Boiss. & Kotschy) Wolff in Engler, Pflanzenreich 43 (IV. 228): 135 (1910). Ic: Schlechtendal, Lang. & Schenk, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 5, 27: t. 2753 (1886), as B. exaltatum. Fl. 7-8. Open forest, rocky slopes, mountain steppe, 1000-2440 m.
  Described from Italy (as B. cernuum Ten.).
  Mainly N., S. & E. Anatolia. A3 Bolu: Abant G., 27 viii 1941, B. Post! A4 Kastamonu: N. side of Ilgaz Da., 1600 m, D. 25037! A5 Çorum: Kos Da., N.E. of Hacihamza, 1000-2000 m, Watson et al. 3478! A7 Gümüşane: 20 km W. of Bayburt, 1524 m, Furse 4091! A8 Çoruh: Artvin (Grossheim 7: map 65). B6 Sivas: 14 km N. of Sivas, 1350 m, Sorger 69-49! B7 Tunceli: Munzur Da. above Ovacik, 1800 m, D. 31163! B9 Van: 5 km N. of Hoşap, D. 24533! C2 Muğla: d. Fethiye, Baba Da., 1520 m, D. 13671b! C4 Konya: Ermenek, 1400 m, D. 16177! C5 Niğde: Ala Da., on Demirkazik, 1830-2440 m, Findlay 76! C5/6 Hatay: Gesbel Da. (Amanus), G. Post (type of B. linearifolium var. bracteatum - bracts much longer than the short fruiting pedicels)! C9 Hakkari: Zap gorge nr. Dezi, 1600 m, D. 24017!
  An extremely variable and widespread Eurasian subspecies, of which only synonyms applicable to Turkish variants have been included. Most of the material from N. and Inner Anatolia is referable to var. exaltatum (Bieb.) Briq., but specimens from S. and S.E. Anatolia can hardly be referred to that variety. The material cited from the Taurus (D. 13671b, D. 16177, Findlay 76) approaches f. irregulare (Boiss. & Kotschy) Wolff from the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, while D. 24017 from Hakkari belongs to the strongly suffruticose var. linearifolium (DC.) Wolff, that is common in N. Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan. All, however, intergrade with var. exaltatum. A broad-leaved specimen from A4 Kastamonu (Tosya, Giaurdagh, Sint. 1892:4801!) is intermediate between the latter and var. diversifolium (Rochel) Wolff from S.E. Europe. The plant described from the Amanus as B. antiochium Post (J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 24:427, 1896) was included by Wolff (op. cit. 130) in subsp. fakattım, but the type obviously represents a flaccid, broad-leaved shade form that might be an extreme variant of subsp. cernuum that extends into the Amanus.