Juniperus communis

J. communis L., Sp. Pl. 1040 (1753). Map 13, p. 81.
  Dioecious shrub or tree. Leaves with a single broad white stomatal band on the upper surface (rarely with an obscure midrib dividing the band in the lower half). Cone 6-9 mm, ovoid to globose, black when ripe. Seeds 3, free.
Divided into a number of Franco (Bol. Soc. Brot., ser. 2, 36: 101-120, 1962), of which two occur in Turkey:
1. Leaves straight, closely set; shrub up to 2.5 m subsp. hemisphaerica
1. Leaves incurved, very closely set or imbricate; low shrub, up to 6 m subsp. nana
subsp. nana
Syme in Sowerby, Engl. Bot. ed. 3, 8: 275 & t. 1383 (1868). Syn: J. nana Willd., nom. nud.; J. pygmaea K. Koch in Linnaea, 22: 302 (1849); J. communis var. nana (Willd.) Boiss., Fl. Or. 5: 707 (1884). Rocky slopes, scrub and forest edges, 1100-2600 m, often dominant at and above the tree-line.
  Type: none cited.
  Widespread but commonest in N. Anatolia. A2 Bursa: Ulu Da., 1800-2180 m, Moore 7276! A3 Bolu: Gerede to Kizilcahamam, 1350 m, D. 26278! A4 Kastamonu: Daday to Azdavay, 1100 m, D. 38652! A5 Amasya: Sana Da., Bornm. 1889: 1528b. A6 Sivas: Zara to Suşehri, 2000 m, Balls 452! A7 Gümüşane: Omale, Sint. 1894: 5536! A8 Rize: Kardash, 2600 m, Balls 452! Bl Izmir: d. Ödemiş, Boz Da., 1800 m, D. 18449! B5 Kayseri: Ercias Da., Krause. B7 Tunceli: Pülümür to Selepur, 1950 m, D. 31579! B9 Bitlis: crater of Nemrut Da., 2400 m, McNeill 562! C2 Denizli: Baba Da., 1800 m, D. 18403!
  N. Temperate regions, on mountains. The distinctions between the two subspecies in Turkey seem rather slight, and a number of intermediate specimens occur, e.g.: A4 Çankiri: Çankiri to Ilgaz, 2000 m, D. 21488! B2 Kütahya: d. Gediz, Şaphane Da., 1700 m, D. 18515! Murat Da., 1700 m, D. 36876! Some of these approach the widely distributed subsp. communis, a tree or shrub with rather long, lax leaves. The Turkish specimens of subsp. nana are, on the whole, less prostrate and mat-like than those from many parts of Europe, and often form a ± fan-shaped bush. A record of J. communis is given for Tekir Da., A1(E), by Stojanov (Ann. Univ. Sofia, 8-9, 1914) - this may refer to subsp. nana or possibly subsp. communis. The record requires confirmation.