Olea europaea
var. sylvestris
Olea L.
Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (MILLER) LEHR.
Ömür: Çok yıllık
Yapı: ağaç
Hayat formu:
İlk çiçeklenme zamanı: 0
Son çiçeklenme zamanı: 0
Habitat: maki, kayalık yamaçlar ve boğazlar
Minimum yükseklik: 50
Maksimum yükseklik: 750
Endemik: -
Element: Akdeniz
Türkiye dağılımı: Dış Anadolu
Genel dağılımı: Akdeniz Havzası
Bulunduğu kareler:A1 A2 A3 A5 A6 A7 A8 B1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
O. europaea L,, Sp. PI. 8 (1753).
  Tree to 10(-15) m, with a broad crown, often gnarled trunk, and thornless nearly terete branches, or densely branched shrub to 2(-5) m, with 4-angled ± thorny branches; twigs lepidote, grey; buds very small, lepidote-sericeous, greyish. Leaves lanceolate or obovate, (8-)20-86 x (4-)5-17(-24) mm, subsessile, mucronate, dark green and glabrous above, densely silvery-lepidote beneath. Panicles shorter than leaves; flowers white, fragrant, 3-4 mm, drupe subglobose or oblong, 6-35(-4O) x 5-20(-25) mm, shining black, brownish-green or rarely ivory-white when ripe. Fl. 5.
1. Leaves lanceolate, longer than 4 cm; twigs thornless, nearly terete; fruit large (to 35 mm) var. europaea
1. Leaves obovate, shorter than 4 cm; lower twigs ± thorny and quadrangular; fruit small (to 15 mm) var. sylvestris
var. sylvestris (Miller) Lehr., Diss. Bot.-Med. Olea europaea: 20 (1779). Syn: O. sylvestris Miller. Gard. Diet. ed. 8, no. 3 (1768); O. europaea L. var. oleaster (Hoffmanns. & Link) DC., Prodr. 8:284 (1844). Ic: Reichb., Ic. FL Germ. 17: t. 1074 (1854). Map 16, p. 153. Macchie, rocky slopes and gorges, 50-750 m.
  Described from S. France, Spain & Italy.
  Outer Anatolia. A1(A) Balıkesir: S. of Marmara adasi, A.Baytop (ISTE 13679)! A2(A) Kocaeli: Hereke to Izmit, 50 m, D. 42016! A3 Eskişehir: Sakarya valley, Saricakaya, Mayislar, 400 m, Ekim 698! A5 Samsun: Vezirköprü, 400 m, Tobey 2442! A6 Amasya: Erbaa, Yeşilirmak valley, Çetik 884! A7 Trabzon: Değirmen De. basin, 65 m, Anşiıı 219! A8 Çoruh: Çoruh gorge, Yusufeli to Artvin, 600 m, D. 47692! Bl Manisa: Harapkale, 150 m, Akbuğa et al. 15305! C2 Muğla: Marmaris to Gökova, 50-100 m, D. 41074! C3 Antalya: Düzierçami, 650 m, Kabale 2890! C4 lçel: Mut to Silifke, 300 m, Coode & Jones 1061! C5 lçel: Tarsus to Adana, 27 iv 1955, Karamanoğlul C6 Adana: Saimbeyli to Feke, 750 m, D. 26698! Is: Lesvos, Cand.; Ikaria, Rec/ı. obs.; Samos, Rec/ı. 3624; Leros, Iconopoulos; Nisiros, Papatsou obs.; Rodhos, Fiori 366.
Distribution of wild species: Mediterranean area. Medit. element. The ecological status of the oleaster ('wild' olive) has long been as much a subject of controversy as the origin of the cultivated crop. D.Zohary (in Science 187:319-321, 1975) makes out a plausible case that var. sylvestris (long known as var. oleaster) is genuinely wild near the Mediterranean and southern Black Sea coasts. In his view, the cultivated crop has probably been derived from var. sylvestris by the artificial selection of high oil-yielding genotypes and perpetuated by clonal propagation. Nevertheless, the distinction between wild and cultivated olives is often blurred in disturbed habitats (e.g. near the edge of olive groves). The cultivars are often genetically heterozygous, and their spontaneous seedlings may revert towards var. sylvestris, with which cultivated olives are inter-fertile and on which they are often grafted.
  Another view, which proposes that the crop is derived from a hybrid swarm in the E. Mediterranean, is summarized by N.W.Simmonds (Evolution of Crop Plants, p. 219, 1976). In practice, the name var. sylvestris probably covers both wild and feral forms.