Vicia cracca
subsp. tenuifolia
Vicia L.
Vicia cracca L. subsp. tenuifolia (ROTH) GAUDIN
Ömür: Çok yıllık
Yapı: ot
Hayat formu:
İlk çiçeklenme zamanı: 5
Son çiçeklenme zamanı: 7
Habitat: Pinus sylvestris ormanında, çalılık, çayırlıklar, dağ bozkırı, kıyılar, tarla kenarları
Minimum yükseklik: 400
Maksimum yükseklik: 2300
Endemik: -
Element: ?
Türkiye dağılımı: KD. ve D. Anadolu
Genel dağılımı: O. ve G. Avrupa, K. ve KB. İran, K. Irak, KB. Afrika
Bulunduğu kareler:A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A7 A8 A9 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 C2 C3 C4 C5 C7 C8 C9 C10
V. cracca L., Sp. PL 735 (1753). Davis in Notes R.B.G. Edinb. 29: 314 (1969). Maps 57, 58. p. 285.
Slender perennial, erect or climbing, glabrescent or adpressed-hairy. Leaflets (5-)8-16(-20)-paired, 0.8-4 cm, ovate-oblong to linear; stipules slender, semi-hastate, nearly always entire; tendrils branched. Peduncle shorter or longer than leaf; raceme 10-40-flowered, dense or lax. Flowers 13-18(-20) mm, violet or lilac (rarely white). Calyx 3-6 mm, scarcely gibbous, often purplish, the lowest tooth shorter to slightly longer than tube. Limb of standard subequal to nearly twice as long as claw. Style laterally compressed. Legume 20-30 mm, always glabrous. Seeds several.
A very polymorphic species, in which it is particularly, difficult to distinguish between inherited variation and phenotypic plasticity. The complex is at its most variable in the Balkans, Anatolia and Caucasia. The five subspecies recognised for Turkey form a partly discontinuous series, subsp. cracca and subsp. steno-phylla being the two extremes. Although the V. cracca complex has received bio-systematic study in Europe, almost nothing is Known about the group's cytogenetics in Anatolia and Caucasia. The following account is tentative; the eastern limits of the subspecies remain somewhat uncertain, partly due to the questionable status of several 'species' recognised in Caucasia. Specimens of V. cracca sensu lato have often been confused with V. villosa (q.v.).
1. Flowers large, very dark violet, 13-18 mm long; peduncle short, usually 2-4 cm, as long as the conferred raceme: plant erect, with leaflets usually 8-10-paired. oblong-lanceolate to oblong, often subsericeous; limb of standard 1-4/3 × as long as claw: legume as in subsp. qerardii subsp. atroviolacea
1. Plants without the above combination of characters, the peduncles and racemes being longer, and the flowers paler
2. Standard 10-14 mm, limb subequal or equal to claw, violet-blue: leaflets 10-25 mm. widest at or below the middle, or parallel-sided; legume ( 17-)20-25 mm, stipe included in the calyx tube or shortly exserted; plant erect or climbing, with peduncles usually 4-7 cm
3. Stems weak, climbing, adpressed-pubescent; leaflets 5-12-paired; lowest calyx tooth subequal to tube, lanceolate; legume oblong, with the obliquely truncate ends almost parallel, narrowed into a short stipe included in calyx tube subsp. cracea-
3. Stems self-supporting, erect, patently or adpressed-pubescent; leaflets 12-16(-20)-paired; lowest calyx tooth as long to slightly longer than tube, subulate; legume obliquely oblong, more gradually narrowed into a stipe equal to or slightly longer than calyx tube subsp. gerardii
2. Standard 11-18 mm, limb slightly longer to up to 2 x as long as claw, mauve, lilac or violet blue (rarely white); leaflets 10-40 mm, always parallel-sided; legume 22-30 mm, with an exserted stipe; plants erect with peduncles 4-13 cm
4. Leaflets oblong-linear, 15-40x2-5 mm, usually obtuse; habit stouter and less twiggy than in subsp. stenophylla; inflorescence rather dense, flowers nodding; limb of standard 3/2-2 x as long as claw; legume obliquely oblong subsp. tenuifolia
4. Leaflets narrowly linear, 10-30 x0.5-2(-3) mm, acute; habit bushy, with branches and leaf rachides slender and rigid; inflorescence usually lax, flowers often more spreading; limb of standard up to 3/2 x as long as claw; legume obliquely oblanceolate, more attenuate below than in any other subspecies subsp. stenophylla
subsp. cracca. Figure 3, p. 323. Syn: V. cracca L. subsp. vulgaris Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4:505 (1829). Ic: Guinea, op. cit. 106, t. (1953); Ross-Craig, Draw. Brit. P1. 7: t. 61 (1954). Fl. 4-8. Deciduous scrub, hedgerows, moist meadows, 100- 2270 m.
Described from Europe (Hb. Cliff! Hb. Linn. 906/11!). Turkey-in-Europe, N. & E. Anatolia. A2(E) Istanbul: Sariyer to Kilyos, Rech. 21945! A3 Sakarya: Arifiye, E of Sapanca, 100 m, D. 42042! A7 Giresun: Bala-bandağlari, above Tamdere, 1800 m, D. 20480! A8 Trabzon: N. slope of Soğanli Da., 2000-2200 m, D. 32186! Rize: d. Ikizdere, Yetimhoca (Çimil), 2100 m, D. 21000! Gümüşane: Bayburt, 2000 m, Alpsy (ANKO 2411)! A9 Kars/Erzurum: W of Karaurgan, Winter 261! B9 Ağri: d. Suluçem (Musun), 5 km E of Balik G., 1250 m, D. 47074! 20 miles E of Ağri, 1520 m, Furse 3601 (leaves narrowly linear). B8/B9 Erzurum/Ağri: Ağri-Erzurum road, Winter 475b! C9 Hakkari: Koçanis, 2270 m, D. 24304b!
Most of Europe, Caucasia. Euro-Sib. element. Sturdy material from N.E. Anatolia (A7, A8), assigned here to subsp. cracca. is close to plants distinguished in Caucasia as V. grossheimii Ekvthym. (cf. Fl. Gruzii 5: t. 229, 1949). A canes-cent, nearly erect flowering specimen from the Amanus (C5 Hatay: d. Belen, Karlik Tepe nr Soğuk Oluk, 900 m. D. 27035!) is intermediate between subsp. cracca and gerardii.
subsp. gerardii Gaudin. Fl. Helv. 4:506 (1829). Zertova in Biologia 17(8): 569 (t. p. 571), 1962. Syn: V. incana Gouan. Fl. Monsp. 189 (1765); V. gerardi All., Fl. Pedem. 1:325 (1785) non Jacq. (1775); V. cundolleana Ten., Fl. Nap. 5:111(1811-38); V. galloprovincialis Poiret. Encycl. Suppl. 5:471 (1817); V. cracca L. subsp. incana (Gouan) Rouy, Fl. Fr. 5:234 (18991. Ic: Guinea, op. cit. t. p. 110 (1953); Hegi, I11. FI. Mittel.-Eur. 4(3): 1532 f. 1544 (1924). Fl. 4-5. Open forests, rocky places, hedges, banks, nr. s.l.-lOOO m.
Lectotype: Gerard, Fl. Galloprov. t. 19 (1761)!
N.W. TurKey. A1(E) Kirklareli: 24 km S W of Demirkoy, Bauer & Spitz. 120! A2(E) Istanbul: Rumelihisari, 30 v 1918, B. Post! Sariyer, Yaltirik 1378! A2(A) Istanbul: Pasabahçe to Polonezköy, 24 v 1939, B. Post! Bursa: Kumla to Armutlu, A. & T. Bayrop 12520! Bursa to Ulu Da.. 1000 m, Dudley, D. 34725!
C. & 3. Europe, mostly on mountains. The number of leaflets in this subspecies (12-16(-22)-paired on the median leaves) is usually higher than in other subspecies of V. cracca. However, Turkish material is very variable and not typical of subsp. gerardii as it occurs in most of southern Europe, the indumentum in Turkey often being ± adpressed, the leaves often linear-oblong, and the lowest calyx tooth somewhat shorter. Similar plants have been seen from S.E. Europe. The following specimens from N. & C. Anatolia are apparently intermediate between subsp. gerardii and subsp. stenophylla or tenuifolia: A4 Kastamonu: Küre to Inebolu, 730 m, D. 21618! Çorum: Merzifon, 1909, Sohagnian! Çankiri: Çerkeş distr., 21 vi 1951, R. Erdaç! A5 Kastamonu: Tosya, Sint. 1892:3865! Samsun: d. Bafra, Çetirli Pinar Köy, Tobey 195! A6 Tokat: Erbaa, Çatalan, Tobey 671!B4 Ankara: Kizilcahamam, 1300 m, Alpay (ANKO 2409)! Their status requires further study.
subsp. atroviolacea (Bornm.) Davis in Notes R.G.B. Edinb. 29: 313 (1969). Syn: V. tenuifolia Roth subsp. atroviolacea Bornm. in Beih. Bot. Centr. 24(2): 462 (1909)! Fl. 6-7. Open coniferous forests, scrub, rocky places, 1200-2200 m.
Type: [Turkey B3 Konya] in dumosis silvaticisque alpinis et subalpinis montis Sultan-dagh, 15-1800 m, 22 vi 1899, Bornmiiller 4357 (E! W!).
W., S.W. & C. Anatolia. Bl Balikesir: mt. Kapu Da. (Kaz Da.), Sint. 1883: 674 (as V. gerardii)! B2 Kütahya: Simav Da., 1700 m, Coode & Jones 2659! Murat Da., (above Gediz) below Hamam, 1200 m, D. 36851! C3 Isparta: d. Sütçüler, Kuyucuk Da., 1400 m, D. 15885!
N. Greece? A fruiting specimen from A8 Erzurum (30-32 km from Oltu to Tortum, 2100-2200 m. D. 47620!) may also belong to subsp. atroviolacea. The material cited from B2 Kütahya (Phrygia) is very characteristic on account of its subsericeous leaves. Specimens from A4 Ankara (Çamkoru, 1300 m, Alpay 247!) and A7 Gümüşane (Sintenis 1894:5962 & 6209! - both syntypes of V. boissieri Freyn) appear to be intermediate between subsp. atroviolacea and tenuifolia. In facies these have much in common with some Caucasian specimens determined as V. grossheimii Ekvthym. (Syn: V. variabilis Freyn var. subalpina Grossh., Fl Kavk. ed. 1. 2:368 (1930); cf. my note under subsp. cracca.)
subsp. tenuifolia (Roth) Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4:507 (1829). Figure 3, p. 323. Syn: V. tenuifolia Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1:309 (1788); V. boissieri Freyn in Bull. Herb. 3oiss. 3:191 (1895) pro parte! ?V. antiqua Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 1, 2:367 (1930): V. variabilis sensu Grossh., Fl. Kavk. 5:394 (1952) non Freyn (1892)! Ic: Hegi. I11. Fl. Mittel-Eur. 4(3): 1532 f. 1545 (1924); Guinea, op. cit. 113, t. (1953). Fl. (4-)5-7. Finns sylvestris forest, scrub, meadows, mountain steppe, hanks, field margins. 400-2300 m.
Described from Germany.
N.E. & E. Anatolia.
A7 Gümüşane: pass between Köse and Gümüşane,2000 m. D. 31963! A8 Çoruh: 10 miles from Artvin to Yusufeli, 400 m. Stainton 8271! A9 Çoruh: Ardanuç to Kordevan Da.. 1450 m, D. 30145! Kars: Yağmurlu Da. above Sarikamiş, 2300 m. D. 32607! S.W. side of Kisir Da.. 2300 m, D. 30508! Erzurum: E of Oltu (Grossheim 5: map 496). B8 Erzurum: Pasinler to Horasan. 1700 m. D. 29451! B9 Bitlis: Tatvan to Tuğ, 1800 m, D. 22330! Van: 5-8 km from Van to Değirmenkoy, 1900 m, D. 44433! Ağri: Murat valley, 2 km S W of Hamur, 1670 m. D. 44076! B10 Van: 5 km of Başkale, 2150 m, D. 45936! C10 Hakkari: 9-10 km from Şemdinli to Yüksekova, 1700 m, D. 45038!
C. & S. Europe, N. & N.W. Iran, N. Iraq; N.W. Africa? Showing some inter-gradation with subsp. stenophylla, particularly in leaf shape. Material from N. Iraq is mostly intermediate between the two subspecies.
subsp. stenophylla Vel., Fl. Buig. 163 (1891). Figure 3, p. 323. Syn: V. elegans Guss., Fl. Sic. Prodr. 2:438 (1828); V. tenuifolia var. laxiflora Gris., Spic. 1:82 (1843)! V. tenuifolia Roth var. stenophylla Boiss., Fl. Or. 2:586 (1872)! nomen illegit.; V. dalmatica Kerner, Sched. Fl. Austro-Hung. 4:1029 (1886); V. variabilis Freyn in Öst. Bot. Zeitschr. 42:82 (1892) pro parte; V. elegans var. asiatica Freyn in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3:192 (1895)! V. asiatica (Freyn) Grossh., Fl. Kavk. 5:395 (1952)! Ic: Reichb., Ic. Fl. Germ. 22: t. 232 (1903), as V. dalmatica. Fl. 5-7. Corn and fallow fields, less commonly in scrub, on rocky slopes and on banks, nr. s.l.-2200 m.
Described from N. Greece (syntypes of V. tenuifolia var. laxiflora Gris. (K!)).
Widespread; particularly abundant in Inner Anatolia. A1(E) Kırklareli: Demirköy to Iğneada, Kayacik 12! A1(A) Çanakkale: Renkioi (Erenkoy), v 1856, Kirk! A2(E) Istanbul: Değirmendere, Demiriz 4897! A2(A) Kocaeli: Pendik, 7 vi 1891, Azn.! A3 Bolu: above Mudurnu, 1250 m, D. 37085! A4 Ankara: Hacikadin valley, 800 m, D. 18839! A5 Yozgat: 10 miles from Çekerek to Alaca, 800 m, Coode & Jones 1642! A7 Gümüşane: Stadodopi, Sint. 1894:6210! (syntype of V. elegans var. asiatica). A8 Rize: Cimil, 2000 m, 1866, Bal. (robust; limb of Standard as long as claw). Bl Izmir: Sabanca Beli, Bornova-Manisa, 420 m, Hub.-Mor. 2567 (leaflets 3 mm broad)! B3 Konya: Sultan Da. above Akşehir, 1100-1400 m, Bornm. 1899:4356! B4 Ankara: Elma Da., 1200 m, Mark-graf 1O534! B5 Kirşehir: Mucur to Sife G., D. 21800! B6 Sivas: Sivas to Zara, 1200 m, Balls 1391a. B7 Elaziğ: Kharput, Sint. 1899:594 & 595 (densely canes-cent)! B8 Erzurum: 20 km from Hinis to Pasinler, 1900 m, D. 46360! B9 Bitlis: W. side of Pelli Da. pass, 2200 m, D. 46011! C2 Antalya: Elmali, 29 v 1860, Bourgeau! C3 Konya: 13 miles from Beyşehir to Konya, 1100 m, D. 35849! C4 Içel: d. Mut, Magras Da., Coode & Jones 799! C5 Içel: Gullek Depe, 1100 m, Siehe 1896:679! C6 Gaziantep: Gaziantep, Karataş, Balls 2215! C7 Urfa: 8 km from Urfa to Hilvan, 600 m, D. 28196! C8 Siirt: 13 km from Siirt to Kurtalan, 850 m, D. 43114! Is: Lesvos, Rech. 5599: Samos, Rech. 3400.
Italy, Balkans. Hungary, Romania. Crimea, Cyprus, Transcaucasia, W. Syria, Iran; N. Iraq ? Some specimens (e.g. Bl Izmir. Hub.-Mor. 2567!) have exceptionally wide leaflets up to 3 mm, but are otherwise typical of this subspecies; some other plants with broad leaflets have the standard equalling the claw (A8 Rize: Cimil, 3a/.! Bl Balikesir. Mt. Ida. Sint. 1883:1093). Densely canescent gatherings from A4 Çankiri (Çankiri. 1520 m, D. 21478!) and B7 Elaziğ (Kharput. Sint. 1899:594 & 595! Elaziğ to Pertek. 1300 m. D. 29196!) approach subsp. gerardii in indumentum, but belong to a variant of subsp. stenophylla originally described as V. variabilis Freyn. Subsp. stenophylla is the commonest subspeciesin Turkey, and is found chierly in disturbed habitats. Its almost oblanceolate legumes help to distinguish it from subsp. tenuifolia, which tends to have a more northerly distribution.