Zea mays
subsp. mays

Zea mays
subsp. mays
Zea L.
Zea mays L. subsp. mays L.
Ömür: Tek yıllık
Yapı: ot
Hayat formu:
İlk çiçeklenme zamanı: 6
Son çiçeklenme zamanı: 10
Habitat: kültür, terkedilmiş tarlalar içinde
Minimum yükseklik: 0
Maksimum yükseklik: 1830
Endemik: -
Element: ?
Türkiye dağılımı: Trakya ve Anadolu (özellikle KD. Anadolu)
Genel dağılımı: Meksika ve diğer Ülkeler
Bulunduğu kareler:A2 A6 A7 A8 A10 B7 B10 C7 C10
Z. mays L., Sp. Pl. 971 (1753). Ic: Zhukovsky, LaTurquie Agricole 320, f. 168 (1933);F1. Iraq 9: t. 215 (1968). subsp. mays.
Stems to 4 m or more, solid, 2-6 cm diam., erect, rooting at lower nodes. Ligule truncate, 3-5 mm. Leaf blades 90 cm long or more, 3-12(-15) cm broad, linear-acuminate, with sinuate margins. Male inflorescence 15-30 x 17-25 cm, erect; spikelets 6-15 mm. Female inflorescences c. 20 cm; styles very.long (to 4 cm), drooping and exserted from apex of sheaths at and after anthesis. Caryopsis usually cuneiform, 5-10 mm, dorsiventrally compressed. Fl. 6-10. Cultivated, and in abandoned fields, nr s.l.-1830 m.
Described from America (Hb. Linn. 1096/1 [male inflorescence] & 1096/2 [female], photos!).
Cultivated in Turkey-in-Europe and most of Anatolia, especially in the N. & E. A2(E) Istanbul: Therapia (Tarabya), 29 vi 1890, Azn.! A2(A) Bursa: Inegöl to Bursa, 350 m, D. 47781! A6 Ordu: Fatsa to Ordu, nr s.l., Kit-Tan obs. A7 Giresun: Görele, nr s.l., Kit-Tan obs. Trabzon: Trabzon to Rize, nr s.l., Kit-Tan obs. A8 Rize: nr Pazar, nr s.l., Kit-Tan obs. Çoruh: Artvin, 1600 m, Kit-Tan obs. A10 Kars: N. of Orta Alican, 800 m, Sorger & Kit-Tan 84-72-70! B7 Diyarbakir: Bahçeköy, 80 km from Diyarbakir to Dicle, 1000 m, Kit-Tanobs. Bl0 Kars: Iğdir to Aralik, 950m, Kit-Tanobs. C7 Adiyaman: Adiyaman to Kömur, 1090 m, Kit-Tan obs. Diyarbakir: Diyarbakir to Karaca Da., 1100 m, Kit-Tan obs. C10 Hakkari: Piskasir to Oramar, 45 km S. of Yüksekova, 1830 m, Trelawny obs.
Subsp. mays (maize or corn, in Turkish 'misir') is an obligate cultigen, being the result of selection by aboriginal domesticators in Mexico from annual teosinte, Z. mays subsp. mexicana (Schrader) litis (Doebley & litis, op. cit. 983, 1980). It is not known as a wild plant and was introduced through Spain to Asia, Africa and (much later) Australia.
Many cultivars are known, which have been given binomials but which are not now considered worthy of formal taxonomic recognition. Zhukovsky (La Turquie Agricole 319-327 & 836-838, 1933) enumerates 17 such cultivars from Turkey. Most belong to the 'Flint Corn' group (Z. mays 'indurata') but Z. mays 'everta' (Pop Corn) and Z. mays 'indentata'(Dent Corn) are grown on a smaller scale. According to Zhukovsky, N. Anatolia from Kastamonu eastwards is the main centre of maize cultivation in Turkey, with secondary centres inW. Anatolia (Aydin, Balikesir, Bursa, Denizli, Izmir and Manisa) and S. Anatolia (Adana and Içel). No material from the latter regions has been seen. The species is often grown in smallholdings together with Nicotiana tabacum L. (Kit Tan, pers. comm.).
Z. mays is under-collected both in Mexico and throughout its range of cultivation; as a result the taxonomy is poorly understood. Female inflorescences (cobs) are hardly collected and I have seen none from Turkey.