Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) EHRH.
var. segetalis (THUILL.) SER. EX DC.

Vicia L.
Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) EHRH. var. segetalis (THUILL.) SER. EX DC.
Ömür: Tek yıllık
Yapı: ot
Hayat formu:
İlk çiçeklenme zamanı: 3
Son çiçeklenme zamanı: 5
Habitat: çayırlıklar, çimenlik kıyılar, tarlalar
Minimum yükseklik: 0
Maksimum yükseklik: 2000
Endemik: -
Element: ?
Türkiye dağılımı: Dış ve D. Anadolu
Genel dağılımı: ?
Bulunduğu iller
Bulunduğu kareler :A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 B1 B2 B3 B7 B8 B9 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C8 C9

V. sativa L., Sp. PL 736 (1753). Zhukovsky, La Turquie Agricole, 382-402 (1933); Mettin & Hanelt in Kulturpfl. 12:163-225 (1964); Yamamoto in Mem. Fac. Agric. Kagawa Univ. 21:1-104 (1966).
Hairy to subglabrous annual, 20-80(-100) cm, decumbent to erect or climbing. Leaflets (2-)4-8(-9)-paired, usually 10-40x2-15 mm, linear or lanceolate to oblong or obovate, rarely deeply toothed. Stipules semi-hastate, dentate; tendrils generally branched. Flowers l-2(-3), axillary, (10-)14-27(-30) mm, pale pink to purplish violet, rarely white, short-pedicelled, very rarely short-peduncled. Calyx 7-20 mm, campanulate-tubular, nearly regular, pubescent; teeth (3-)5-l 1(-14) mm, subequal, linear-subulate or lanceolate. Legume (25-)35-65(-70) x 5-9(-12) mm, linear, somewhat beaked, usually ± pubescent; sometimes also with subterranean, 1-2-seeded fruits. Seeds (of aerial legumes) usually 6-12, smooth, 2-7 mm diam., hilum short. Fl. 3-5(-6).
This wild and cultivated, cosmopolitan species is one of the most variable (genetically and phenotypically) in the genus. Five main taxa, at subspecific rank, can be distinguished in the complex. The variability in all taxa, or populations, of V. sativa is homologous, parallel, and consequently overlapping; many of the subdivisions are known to interbreed with each other, at least to some extent. The species shows considerable variation in almost every trait, but particularly in leaflet morphology and in basic chromosome number.
1. Flowers and fruits dimorphic; stems aerial and subterranean, the latter bearing rudimentary flowers producing 1-2-seeded fruits below ground subsp. amphicarpa
1. Flowers and fruits monomorphic, all borne on aerial stems
   2. Legumes 9-11 mm broad, with coriaceous, prominently veined, dark brown or blackish, often pubescent legumes; corolla    20-30 mm subsp. macrocarpa
   2. Legumes narrower, with thinner valves, yellowish-brown to blackish; corolla 14-27 mm
    3. Legumes ± torulose, 45-70 x 6-10 mm: seeds 4.5-7 mm; calyx teeth usually 5-11 mm; corolla 20-26 mm; leaflets      
     (5-)6-3(-   9)-paired. linear or oblong to obovate, truncate subsp. sativa
    3. Legumes not torulose, usually smaller, less than 6.5 mm broad; seeds 2-5 mm; calyx teeth usually shorter or much longer than 6 mm; leaflets acutish to emarginate, 4-7-paired
       4. Leaflets usually (6-)10-14 mm broad: calyx 12-20 mm. teeth 6-12 mm; corolla 17-26 mm; seeds 4-5 mm (sturdy plants) subsp. incisa
Some or all of the leaflets incised-dentate, all broadly cuneate-obovate; corolla usually concolorous var. incisa
         5. All leaflets entire, oblong to obovate-cuneate; corolla usually bicolored var. cordata
      4. Leaflets usually less than 10 mm broad; calyx 7-12(-13) mm, teeth c. 2.5-8 mm; corolla 10-20 mm; seeds 2-4(-5) mm subsp. nigra
            6. Leaflets generally 1-6 mm broad, linear to oblanceolate or oblong, sometimes elliptic, acute to retuse; calyx 7-12 mm, teeth 2.5-7 mm; corolla, (10-) 14-20 mm; plant slender var. nigra
            6. Leaflets 4-10 mm broad, oblong-linear to oblong-obovate, acutish to notched; calyx (8-)10-12(-13) mm, teeth 4-8 mm;corolla 17-22 mm; plant robust var. segetalis
Subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. in Hannover. Mag. 1780 (15): 229 (1780).
var. segetalis (Thuill.) Ser. ex DC, Prodr. 2:361 (1825). Syn: V. segetalis Thuill., Fl. Par. ed. 2. 367 (1799). Ic: Reichb., Ic. Fl. Germ. 22: t. 250 (1903); Guinea (op. cit.) 32, t. (1953). Meadows, grassy banks, fields, s.l.-2000 m.
Described from near Paris.
Scattered, mainly in Outer and E. Anatolia. A1(E) Kirklareli: 24 km S S W of Iğneada, Bauer & Spitz. 286! A2(A) Bursa: 'Gögdere' above Bursa, 200-300 m, Ehrendorfer 62-1/93-20! A3 Bolu: Karacasu, 5 km SW of Bolu, Kühne 940! A6 Samsun: 2 miles E of Samsun, 15 m, Tobey 124! Bl Izmir: Izmir, vi 1932, Schwarz 307 (doubtful)! B2 Kütahya: 2 miles W of Abide to Simav, 700 m, Coode & Jones 2597 (doubtful)! B9 Bitlis: Kisvak Da., 9 km NE of Tatvan, 2000 m, Cheese & Watson 1318! C5 Içel: Corycos, 40 m, Siehe 1895:86! C8 Diyarbakir: NE of Diyarbakir, Zohary & Plitm. 1960212! 1960214! 1960219! C9 Hakkari: Zap gorge, 25 km from Hakkari to Van, 1300 m, D. 44868!
Also recorded from the Vilayets of Ankara, Maraş, Bingöl/Muş and Erzincan. Plants intermediate between var. nigra and var. segetalis have been seen from the provinces of Çanakkale, Çorum, Kütahya, Adana, Mardin, Malatya and the Islands. V. sativa var. segetalis is actually intermediate between var. nigra and var. cordata. subsp. incisa (Bieb.) Arc, Comp. Fl. Ital. 201 (1882).