Scutellaria orientalis L.
subsp. bornmuelleri (HAUSSKN. EX BORNM.) EDMONDSON

Scutellaria L.
Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. bornmuelleri (HAUSSKN. EX BORNM.) EDMONDSON
Ömür: Çok yıllık
Yapı: odunsu ot
Hayat formu:
İlk çiçeklenme zamanı: 7
Son çiçeklenme zamanı: 7
Habitat: dağdaki bozkır, serpentın kayaların üstü
Minimum yükseklik: 1600
Maksimum yükseklik: 3000
Endemik: -
Element: İran-Turan
Türkiye dağılımı: GD. Anadolu
Genel dağılımı: K. Irak, B. İran
Bulunduğu iller
Bulunduğu kareler : A2 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10

S. orientalis L., Sp. PI. 598 (1753). i0 ' ~'yJ^J
A very variable suffrutescent perennial herb, usually repent at base. Stems 5-45 cm, obscurely tetragonal. Leaves distinctly petiolate, lamina ovate-elliptic to linear, 5-30 mm, usually obtuse, cuneate or attenuate (rarely truncate) at base, (with rare exceptions) 1.5-2 x as long as broad, weakly crenate to incised-pinnatifid or pectinate-pinnatifid, glabrous to densely canescent-tcmentose, often markedly discolorous. Inflorescence a terminal spike with tetragonal ranks of flowers (not secund), usually dense with ± imbricate bracts; bracts very variable in size and shape but often either pale greenish or deeply purple-tinged, sessile. Corolla 20-32 mm, usually yellow, sometimes reddish-spotted or with red upper or lower lip or entirely pink, bright red, brick-red or purplish, ± pubescent. Nutlets oblong, tomentellous.
A polymorphic complex extending from Spain and N.W. Africa to Sinkiang. The following 16 subspecies have been recognised mainly by a combination of characters of habit, height and mode of branching of stem, shape and degree of incision of leaves, leaf indumentum, size and shape of bracts and corolla colour. Where appropriate, the distribution of the subspecies within Turkey has been cited in a parenthesis in the key. Short descriptions are given as a further aid to correct identification. Some material cannot be accommodated within the subspecies as presently delimited, and examples of such specimens have been cited which fall outside the range of measurements etc. given in the descriptions. The existence of such morphological intermediates prompted me to adopt a broad species concept in this group.
 1. Cauline leaves at least 4 x as long as broad (Inner Anatolia) m. subsp. santolinoides
 1. Cauline leaves less than 4 x as long as broad
  2. Leaves pinnatifid, divided at least to midway to midrib
   3. Lower bracts pinnatifid to dentate; stems to 25 cm tall (S.E. Anatolia) j. subsp. pichleri
   3. Lower bracts entire, rarely lowermost pair with 1-2 teeth; stems not exceeding 20 cm tall
    4. Leaves pectinately lobed with narrow linear segments, divided almost to midrib, strongly discolorous, greenish above, whitish beneath (N.E. Anatolia) c. subsp. sosnowskyi
    4. Leaves divided to distinctly short of midrib, lobes ± revolute, con-colorous or weakly discolorous, greenish above and beneath (widespread) h. subsp. pinnatifida
  2. Leaves serrate, crenate or crenately lobed, divided to less than half-way to midrib
     5. Lamina of median cauline leaves not more than 8 mm (rarely more); plant prostrate, mat-forming
      6. Margins of leaves subacutely serrate; calyx densely sericeous (S.E. Anatolia) k. subsp. porphyrostegia
      6. Margins of leaves obtusely lobed; calyx not sericeous
       7. Plant greyish-incanous; margins of leaves often strongly recurved; corolla dusky crimson with yellow lower lip, rarely yellow (medium altitudes) g. subsp. pectinata
       7. Plant ± greenish, not incanous; margins of leaves not strongly recurved; corolla yellow, lower lip sometimes reddish-tinged (widespread at high altitudes) i. subsp. alpina
     5. Lamina of cauline leaves more than 8 mm (except uppermost); plant prostrate to erect, mat-forming or not
        8. Leaves markedly discolorous, silvery-tomentose beneath (N.E. Anatolia) b. subsp. orientalis
        8. Leaves concolorous or somewhat discolorous, not silvery beneath
         9. Stem 20-45 cm, erect; bracts lanceolate to ovate, ± falcately curved upwards
          10. Inflorescence lax; lamina lanceolate to oblong, 3-4 x as long as broad (E. Anatolia) n. subsp. sintenisii
          10. Inflorescence dense; leaves 1.5-2.5 x as long as broad
            11. Stem 20-35 cm, usually branched at base; leaves sparsely tomen-tellous above and beneath, margins shallowly dentate; bracts concave, not keeled (S.E. Anatolia) p. subsp. bornmuelleri
            11. Stem 30-42 cm, usually branched in upper third; leaves densely tomentose to canescent beneath, margins crenate; bracts keeled (E. Anatolia: Mesopotamia) o. subsp. haussknechtii
         9. Stem to 20 cm, prostrate or ascending; bracts broadly ovate to orbicular, not falcately curved upwards
              12. Leaves dimorphic, lowermost linear-oblong with revolute crenat-ions, densely greyish-hairy, cauline triangular-ovate (S.W. Anatolia) 1. subsp. carica
              12. Lowermost cauline leaves similar to the rest, not densely greyish-hairy
                 13. Leaves glabrous (mainly S.E. Anatolia) a. subsp. virens
                 13. Leaves ± puberulous to tomentellous at least beneath
                  14. Lower surface of leaves evenly hairy on and between veins
                    15. Leaves ± concolorous (mainly S.E. Anatolia) a. subsp. virens
                    15. Leaves discolorous (E. Anatolia, mainly Anti-Taurus) d. subsp. bicolor
                  14. Lower surface of leaves unevenly whitish-hairy, with distinctly fewer hairs on veins
                      16. Stems prostrate, 5-15 cm; petiole to 20 mm (Inner Anatolia) e. subsp. macrostegia
                      16. Stems ascending to erect, 10-20 cm; petiole 3-5 mm (E. Anatolia: Mesopotamia) f. subsp. cretacea
subsp. bornmuelleri (Hausskn. ex Bornm.) Edmondson in Notes R.B.G. Edinb. 38:53 (1980). Syn: S. bornmuelleri Hausskn. ex Bornm. in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7(63):33 (1917)! Figure 3. Map 13.
Stem much-branched and rather woody at base, 20-35 cm, rarely un-branched below inflorescence. Leaves rather distant, all cauline, shortly petiol-ate, lamina ovate, 10-20 x 8-12 mm, margin shallowly crenate-dentate with obtuse lobes, very sparsely and finely tomentellous on both surfaces. Bracts yellowish-green, ovate with subulate apex, concave and falcately curved upwards; inflorescence rather dense. Corolla violet or magenta with orange or yellowish upper lip or purplish-tinged or dusky violet with creamy blotch at throat of lower lip, 22-28 mm, ± densely pilose and glandular-hairy. Fl. 7. Montane steppe, on serpentine rocks, 1600-3000 m.
Lectotype (chosen here): N. Iraq, Riwandous (ad fines Persiae) in monte Händarin, 1200 m, 21 vi 1893, Bornmüller 1691 (BM! E!).
S.E. Anatolia. B9 Van: Artos Da. above Gevaş, 2135 m, D. 22692! ibid., 1800-2000 m, Ehrend. et al. 787-92-1! Gurundaşt, Şatak (Çatak) to Van, 1900 m, Nábělek 1609! C9/10 Hakkari: Cilo Tepe, 3000 m, D. 24028 (a rather dwarf alpine form)! C10 Hakkari: 40 km from Yüksekova to Başkale, 1650 m, A. Baytop (ISTE 41276)!
N. Iraq, W. Iran? Ir.-Tur. element. Possibly related to subsp. haussknechtii and subsp. bicolor, but generally of isolated position within the species. Fruiting material is notable for its very prominent scutellum on the upper lobe of the calyx, attaining 7x4 mm at maturity. Ripe nutlets were observed to be sky-blue in colour.